Garnishee Proceedings

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债权扣押程序 (第三债务人程序)

English version

  1. What are Garnishee Proceedings?

1.什么是债权扣押程序 (第三债务人程序)?

A garnishee proceeding is a form of judgment enforcement procedure used to pursue judgment debts, normally when a respondent fails to comply with a monetary judgment obtained by a claimant.

第三债务人程序是一种用于收复判决债务的判决执行程序,通常适用于被告不遵守索赔人获得的金钱判决的情况。

The rules governing these proceedings are provided under Order 49 of the Rules of Court 2012. 

《2012年法院规则》第49条管辖这些诉讼程序的规则。

The three parties generally involved are the judgment creditor, judgment debtor and the garnishee.

通常涉及的三方是判决债权人,判决债务人和第三债务人。

  1. The judgment creditor is the person to which a debt is owed. He or she has obtained an order for the payment of money against the judgment debtor.

1.判决债权人是被欠债的人。他或她已得到庭令针对判决债务人获得金额支付。

  • The judgment debtor is the person against whom the judgment was made. He or she is obligated to satisfy the judgment debt.

2.判决债务人是被判决针对的人。他或她有义务履行该判决的债务。

  • The garnishee is the third party who has debt due or accruing due to the judgment debtor.

3. 第三债务人是对判决债务人有到期债务或应计债务的第三方。

The judgment creditor who has obtained a judgment for the payment of money against a judgment debtor may apply to the court to obtain a court order to instruct the garnishee, a third party indebted to the judgment debtor, to pay the debt which is due or accruing due to the judgment debtor, to the judgment creditor.

已得到向判决债务人获得金额支付判决的判决债权人,可向法院申请庭令,指示第三债务人,欠债于判决债务人的第三方,偿还对判决债务人到期或应计债务,于判决债权人。

Lim Beng Choon J in the High Court in Kedah Kelang Papan Sdn Bhd v. Hansol Sdn Bhd (Teknibina Advisory Services Sdn Bhd, Garnishee) [1988] 1 CLJ Rep 645; [1988] 1 MLJ 434, at 437 had established that no garnishee order can be made unless some person at the time when the order is made, is indebted to the judgment debtor. It must be shown that there is a debt, merely showing that it is very probable that there soon will be a debt is insufficient.

吉打州高庭Lim Beng Choon 法官在Kedah Kelang Papan Sdn Bhd v Hansol Sdn Bhd(Teknibina Advisory Services Sdn Bhd,Garnishee) [1988] 1 CLJ Rep 645; [1988] 1 MLJ 434一案中,于第437页裁定,除非在作出判决令时,某人欠债于判决债务人,否则不得作出任何债权扣押令。它必须证明存在债务,仅证明未來极有可能的债务是不充分的。

The Federal Court has also approved the case of Binamin MJC Quarry Sdn Bhd v. Way Soon Construction Sdn Bhd [2001] 6 CLJ 213 HC which establishes that there must be a crystallised actionable debt by the garnishee to the judgment debtor before an absolute garnishee order could be given. Furthermore, the debt has to be distinctively or clearly identifiable and not lumped with the debts of third parties so that the debt can be attached and the terms of the garnishee order must also be precise, as established in Bumiputera-Commerce Bank Bhd v. Top-A Plastic Sdn Bhd [2008] 5 CLJ 737; [2008] 5 MLJ 34.

联邦法院还认可了Binamin MJC Quarry Sdn Bhd v Way Soon Construction Sdn Bhd [2001] 6 CLJ 213 HC,其中裁定,在绝对债权扣押令被下判之前,判决债务人对第三债务人必须有明确的可诉债务。此外,如Bumiputera-Commerce Bank Bhd v. Top-A Plastic Sdn Bhd [2008] 5 CLJ 737; [2008] 5 MLJ 34所裁定,该债务需具有区别性或可明确识别,且不能与第三方的债务混为一谈,以便债务可被附带,且债权扣押令条款也必须准确。  

This proceeding can also be used to garnish the debtor’s bank account as provided for in O. 49 r. (1). The garnishee application will seek a court order to direct the debtor’s bank to attach an amount from the debtor’s bank account sufficient to satisfy the judgment debt owed to the judgment creditor.

按照第49条第1款所提供,这程序也可以用于扣押债务人的银行账户。该债权扣押申请将寻求庭令以指示债务人的银行从债务人的银行账户中附带足以应付判决债权人的判决债务金额。

The total amount payable by the garnishee is limited to the judgment amount owing by the judgment debtor to the judgment creditor and the costs of the proceedings.

第三债务人应付的总金额仅限于判决债务人所欠判决债权人的判决金额和诉讼费用。

  • Application Process for a Garnishee Order
  • 债权扣押令的申请流程

To commence garnishee proceedings, the judgment creditor can first apply to the court for a show cause order under Form 97.  An application for a garnishee order is then made by filing an ex-parte notice of application supported by an affidavit in Form 98.  

要开始债权扣押程序,判决债权人可首先根据表格97向法院申请陈述理由令。然后申请债权扣押令是以通过在表格98提交由宣誓书支持的单方面申请通知书提出。

A garnishee order functions to summon the garnishee to court and to show cause as to why the order should not be made against him or her. This order to show cause is to be served to the garnishee and the judgment debtor at least seven days before the hearing of the application.

债权扣押令的作用是传唤第三债务人至法院,并陈述不该对他或她作出债权扣押令的理由。这陈述理由令需在该申请聆讯至少七天前送达于第三债务人和判决债务人。

In the High Court case of Pernas Trading Sdn Bhd v. Senali Construction Works Sdn Bhd & Anor [1991] 3 CLJ (Rep) 439, Peh Swee Chin J held that a garnishee has the evidential burden to show cause why the garnishee order nisi should not be made absolute.

在Pernas Trading Sdn Bhd v. Senali Construction Works Sdn Bhd & Anor [1991] 3 CLJ (Rep) 439高庭案中,法官Peh Swee Chin裁定第三债务人有举证责任,以解释为什么该非绝对债权扣押令不该被转换为绝对债权扣押令。

A garnishee may dispute the application made by the judgment creditor for various reasons namely the garnishee ceased to owe the judgment debtor any debt, the judgment debtor’s account with the garnishee bank is held on trust for a third party or that the judgment debtor’s bank account is jointly held with another account holder. In the event a garnishee fails to show cause, the court may make grant the order.

第三债务人可出于各种原因对判决债权人的申请提出异议,例如,第三债务人已不欠判决债务人任何债务,判决债务人在第三债务人银行的账户以信托方式持有给予第三方,或者判决债务人的银行账户与另一位账户持有者共同持有。如果第三债务人无法解释,法院可以下达该庭令。

If the garnishee fails to attend court and dispute the debt due, then the court may make a garnishee order absolute on Form 99. However, if the garnishee does attend court and disputes liability to pay the debt due, the court then has a wide discretion to either decide the matter summarily or fix the matter for trial, thus attaching less significance to the Evidence Act or full trial procedure.

如果该第三债务人未能出庭并对到期债务提出异议,则法院可于表格99作出绝对的债权扣押令。但是,如果第三债务人已出庭并对支付到期债务的责任提出异议,则法院拥有广泛的酌情权来简易处理该案件或将其进行审判,因而对《证据法》或完整审判程序的重视程度较低。

All payments by the garnishee in compliance with the garnishee order is considered a valid discharge of the garnishee’s liability to the judgment debtor to the extent of the amount paid to the judgment creditor. After the payment is completed, the judgment debtor loses its right to demand payment from the garnishee again.

第三债务人按照债权扣押令支付的所有款项,在支付给判决债权人的金额范围内,被视为有效解除第三债务人对判决债务人的责任。完成付款后,判决债务人失去了再次要求第三债务人付款的权利。

  • Prohibitions
  • 禁止事项

There are several restrictions which prohibit certain funds from being garnished:

有几项禁止某些资金被扣押的限制:

For one, according to Section 35 of the Government Proceedings Act 1956, garnishee proceedings cannot be taken up against the government. Therefore, the judgment creditor is unable to compel the government to pay the debts to him or her. 

其一,根据1956年《政府诉讼法》第35条,债权扣押程序不能针对政府提出。因此,判决债权人无法强迫政府把债务偿还于他或她。

All payments or amounts of contributions under the Employees Social Security Act 1969 cannot be attached to garnishee orders according to section 41 of the Act.

根据1969年《雇员社会保障法》第41条的规定,该法下的所有付款或供款额不能附带于债权扣押令上。

According to Section 11 of the Workmen’s Compensation Act 1952, no payment payable under this Act is capable of being attached to a garnishee order or be passed to any person other than the workman by operation of law.  

根据1952年《工人赔偿法》第11条,任何根据本法应支付的款项不能附带于债权扣押令上,也不能通过法律的运作移交给该工人以外的任何人。

According to section 31 of the Employment Act 1955, the court shall not authorise payment of the money garnished to the secured creditor until the court shall have ascertained and caused to be paid the wages of such employee.

根据1955年《雇佣法》第31条,在法院确定并促使其支付该雇员的工资之前,法院不得授权将扣押的金额支付给有担保债权人。

In the case of Binamin MJC Quarry Sdn Bhd v. Way Soon Construction Sdn Bhd; TRS Bina Sdn Bhd (Garnishee); Hong Leong Finance Bhd (Intervener) [2001] 6 CLJ 213; [2001] AMEJ 0202, it is established that a retention sum in a construction contract cannot be subjected to garnishee proceedings when the defect liability period has not expired.

在Binamin MJC Quarry Sdn Bhd v. Way Soon Construction Sdn Bhd; TRS Bina Sdn Bhd (Garnishee); Hong Leong Finance Bhd (Intervener) [2001] 6 CLJ 213; [2001] AMEJ 0202一案中,已裁定,在缺陷保修期未到期的情况下,不能对施工合同中的保证金进行债权扣押程序。

Nicholas Lee Heng Jin
The University of Sheffield

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