7 Things Need Know Mediation Process

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7件事需要知道调解过程

The Mediation Process in Malaysia

马来西亚的调解程序

A. What is Mediation? 

A. 什么是调解?

Mediation is a voluntary, solution-oriented form of alternative dispute resolution. This is where the parties to a dispute agree to resort to mediation, they may seek the assistance of an independent and impartial third party, a Mediator, who will facilitate communication and negotiation between the parties to aid them in reaching a mutually beneficial and satisfactory agreement regarding the dispute. 

调解是自愿的,以解决方案为导向的替代争议解决方式。这是当争端各方同意进行调解,他们可以寻求独立且公正的第三方的协助,调解人,调解人将促进双方之间的沟通和谈判,以帮助他们达成关于争议互利且令人满意的协议。

A few distinctive features of mediation are outlined below: 

以下概述了调解的一些特点:

1. Mediation is voluntary 

1.调解需是自愿的

1.1 When may parties mediate? 

1.1当事各方可何时进行调解?

Mediation is voluntary in the sense that parties may choose to commence mediation proceedings at any given time. The significance of this discretion is that parties may choose to mediate even after court proceedings have been brought. In fact, according to sections 1 and 3 of the Practice Direction No. 4 of 2016 on Mediation (hereinafter referred to as ‘PD No.4 2016’), the Chief Justice of Malaysia has directed that all judges of the High Court, Sessions Court and magistrates, as well as their deputy and assistant registrars respectively, should encourage parties to settle their disputes before the court by way of mediation at the pre-trial stage or at any stage. 

调解是自愿性的,各方可选择在任何时间开始调解程序。这种酌处权的重要性在于,即便在提起诉讼后,当事各方仍可选择进行调解。事实上,根据2016年第4号法律公告第1和第3条(以下简称“ 2016年第4号PD”)于调解程序,马来西亚首席大法官已指示所有高等法院,地方法院及推事庭法官,以及他们各自的副主簿和助理主簿,应鼓励当事各方在预审阶段或任何阶段通过调解方式解决在法院面前的争端。

1.2 On what terms may parties mediate?

1.2当事各方可用什么条款进行调解?

The parties may collectively decide the terms of the mediation proceedings. 

当事各方可共同决定调解程序的条款。

Forums for Mediation

调解程序媒介

The parties may choose the forum through which their dispute is mediated. Section 5 of PD No.4 2016 outlines the following modes of mediation: “(a) by judge-led mediation, (b) by Asian International Arbitration Centre (hereinafter referred to as ‘KLRCA’); or (c) by other mediators agreeable by both parties”. 

当事各方可选择调解其争议的中介。2016年第4号PD第5条概述了以下调解程序的模式:“(a)法官主导调解,(b)亚洲国际仲裁中心(以下简称“ AIAC”);或(c)双方同意的其他调解人”。

It is notable that different mediation forums are governed by different rules. 

值得注意的是,不同的调解中介接受不同的规则约束。

(a) Firstly, judge-led mediation is governed by the rules set out in Annexure A of PD No.4 2016. Significantly, this directs that, the original judge hearing the case shall pass the case to another mediating judge. The mediating judge  will not see the parties without their lawyers’ presence. Nonetheless, it is notable that the parties may choose to vary these terms by agreement. 

(a)首先,由法官主导的调解受2016年第4号PD附件A所列规则的约束。重要的是,这指示,原法官需将案件移交于另一名调解法官。如果没有当事各方律师在场,调解法官将不能会见当事各方。但是,值得注意的是,各方可选择通过协议更改这些条款。

 (b) Secondly, should the parties wish to do so, they may elect to mediate in accordance to AIAC’s Rules of Mediation, in which case the Plaintiff’s solicitor will be required to issue a notice in writing to the AIAC upon the direction of the court within seven (7) calendar days (see: Annexure B of PD No.4 2016).

(b)其次,如果当事各方希望这样做,他们可选择根据AIAC的调解规则进行调解,在这种情况下,原告的律师将被要求根据法院的指示在七(7)个日历天数内向AIAC发出书面通知。(请参阅:2016年第4号PD附件B)。

(c) Where the parties elect to personally appoint their mediator, they may choose from a list of certified mediators furnished by the Malaysian Mediation Centre of the Bar Council of Malaysia (MMC), or any other mediator agreed upon by both parties (see: Annexure C of PD No.4 2016). When a mediator from the MMC has been chosen, the mediation proceedings will be bound by the MMC Code of Conduct and the MMC Mediation Rules. (see: Mediator’s Rules and Code of Ethics, Malaysian Mediation Center website)

(c)如果当事各方选择亲自委任他们的调解人,则可从马来西亚律师公会属下马来西亚调解中心(MMC)提供的经认证的调解人名单中,或由双方同意的任何其他调解人中进行选择(请参阅: 2016年第4号PD附件C)。从MMC中选择调解人后,调解程序将受MMC行为准则和MMC调解规则约束。 (请参阅:调解人规则与行为准则,马来西亚调解中心网站)

Other terms 

其他条款

Other terms upon which the parties may wish mediate against may also include the proportions of the costs of mediation to be borne by each party, as well as the confidentiality of mediation communications. The latter will be discussed further below. 

各方希望进行调解的其他条款还可能包括各方应承担的调解费用比例以及调解通讯的保密。后者将于下面进一步讨论。

Upon coming into agreement on the terms of the mediation proceedings, the parties will outline these terms in a mediation agreement. 

双方就调解程序的条款达成协议后,双方将在调解协议中概述这些条款。

1.3 Are parties obliged to come to a settlement?

1.3当事各方有义务达成和解吗?

The parties are not obliged to come to a settlement where they are unable to reach a mutually beneficial outcome. 

当双方无法达成互惠互利的结果时, 他们没有义务达成和解。

Where mediation is unsuccessful, the mediator will dismiss the mediation session and it is then open to the parties to resolve the remaining dispute by way of litigation or arbitration. 

如果调解不成功,调解人将撤销调解环节,然后当事各方可自由的通过诉讼或仲裁的方式解决剩余的争议。

However, where mediation is successful, the parties may record the agreement in writing in the settlement agreement. Once signed, the settlement agreement will be final and binding on both parties (see: Section 14(1) Mediation Act 2012). Should either party fail to comply with the terms of the settlement agreement, the aggrieved party may have recourse to the default by bringing an action in court for breach

但是,在调解成功的情况下,当事各方可将协议书面记录在和解协议中。一旦签署,和解协议将是最终且对双方均具有约束力(请参阅:2012年调解法第14(1)条)。如果任何一方不遵守和解协议的条款,则受害方可诉诸违约,以违约为由向法院提起诉讼。

2. Mediation proceedings are “without prejudice” / privileged

2.调解程序是“没有偏见” / 保密的

2.1 The general rule 

2.1一般规则

A key feature of mediation proceedings is the confidentiality of the process. According to section 15(1) of the Mediation Act 2012, all mediation communications may not be disclosed and are to remain private between all parties and the mediator involved. 

调解程序的关键特征是过程的保密性。根据2012年调解法第15(1)条,所有调解均不得公开,并且只在各方与所涉及的调解人之间保持隐秘。

Additionally, section 16(1) of the Mediation Act 2012 asserts that any mediation communications are strictly protected by ‘without prejudice’ privilege – such communications may not be subject to “discovery or be admissible as evidence in any prior proceedings”. This means that any matters discussed during the mediation process may not be raised or revisited in future legal proceedings. 

此外, 2012年调解法第16(1)条断言,任何调解通讯均受到“没有偏见”特权的严格保护-此类通讯可不受“披露或在任何先前程序中作为证据被接受”约束。这意味着在调解过程中讨论的任何事项不得在将来的法律程序中提出或重新讨论。

2.2 The Exceptions 

2.2例外

Nonetheless, such guarantees of confidentiality and privilege are subject to several exceptions as outlined in s 15(2) and s 16(2) of the Mediation Act 2012. Excerpts of these sections are as follows: 

但是,此类保密性和特权保证受 2012年调解法第15条第2款和第16条第2款概述的若干例外的约束。这些条文的摘录如下:

“s 15(2) … mediation communication may be disclosed if – 

“第15(2)条……调解通讯可在以下情况下披露:

(a) The disclosure is made with the consent of the parties; 

(a)披露是在当事各方同意的情况下进行的;

(b) The disclosure is made with the consent of the person who gives the mediation communication; 

(b)披露是在进行调解内容的人的同意下进行的;

(c) The disclosure is required under this Act or for the purpose of any civil or criminal proceedings under any written law; or 

(c)根据本法或出于任何成文法则的任何民事或刑事诉讼目的,要求披露;或

(d) The disclosure is required under any other written law for the purposes of implementation or enforcement of a settlement agreement” 

(d)根据任何其他成文法则为实施或执行和解协议目的,要求披露。”

“s 16(2) … the mediation communication is not privileged if – 

“ s 16(2)……调解通讯在以下情况均不享有特权:

(a) The privilege is expressly waived in writing by the parties, the mediator and the non-party; 

(a)当事各方,调解人和非当事人均通过书面明确放弃特权;

 (b) It is a public document by virtue of the Evidence Act 1950 [Act 56]; 

(b)根据《 1950年证据法》 [第56号法] 为公开文件;

(c) It is a threat to inflict bodily injury or commit a crime; 

(c)造成人身伤害或犯罪的威胁;

(d) It is used or intended to be used to plan a crime, attempt to commit or commit a crime, or to conceal a crime or criminal activity or an ongoing crime or ongoing criminal activity;

(d)用于或有意用于计划犯罪,企图犯罪或犯罪,或隐瞒犯罪或犯罪活动或进行中的犯罪或进行中的犯罪活动;

(e) It is sought or offered to prove or disprove a claim or complaint of professional misconduct or malpractice filed against a mediator; or 

(e)寻求或提出证据来证明或反驳针对调解人提出的不当或渎职专业行为的索赔或投诉;或

(f) It is sought or offered to prove or disprove a claim or complaint of professional misconduct or malpractice filed against a party, non-party, or representative of a party based on their conduct during any mediation session.”

(f)寻求或提出证据来证明或反驳根据任何调解会议上针对当事一方,非当事方或当事一方代表的不当或渎职专业行为的行为提出的索赔或投诉。”

The most notable exception to confidentiality and privilege, as highlighted in purple above, is that parties may agree to consent to disclosure, or to expressly waive privilege in writing. In such cases, mediation communications will not be confidential or privileged. 

保密性和特权最显着的例外如以上紫色突出显示的那样,为当事各方可同意披露,或书面明确放弃特权。在这种情况下,调解通讯将不会是保密或拥有特权的。

B. Why should you mediate? 

B.为何您需要进行调解?

Mediation is a preferred method of alternative dispute resolution as it is inexpensive compared to the exorbitant costs of litigation or arbitration. 

调解是替代争议解决方式的一种首选方法,因为较诉讼或仲裁的高昂费用相比,它是不昂贵的。

Mediation is also comparatively more efficient. According to the MMC, most mediations can be concluded within a working day, and may be contrasted with protracted litigation proceedings which may stretch on for years. 

调解也相对有效。 MMC认为,大多数调解可在一个工作日内完成,并且可与可持续数年的漫长诉讼程序形成对比。

Most significantly, mediation is a non-hostile means of resolving a dispute. 

最重要的是,调解是解决争议的一种非敌对手段。

When parties choose to litigate their cases in court, the court system places them in adversarial positions. The conclusion of litigation proceedings results in absolute wins or losses for either party. As such, by the end of litigation, the relationship between both parties will usually have deteriorated beyond repair. 

在当事各方选择对他们的案件在法院进行诉讼时,司法系统会将他们置于敌对立场。诉讼程序结束的结果是任何一方的绝对胜利或失败。因此,诉讼结束之时,双方之间的关系通常会恶化至无法修复。

In contrast, mediation produces amicable resolutions which are likely to be in the best interest of both parties. Thus, mediation is the preferred form of alternative dispute resolution for those whom are concerned with preserving their relationships. 

相反,调解创造了很可能是双方最佳利益的友好解决方案。因此,对于那些在乎维护各方关系的人来说,调解是替代争议解决方式的首选形式。

Please click here for the Operating Procedure for Mediation at the Court Mediation Center

单击此处以获取在法院调解中心的调解操作程序

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