6 Tips To Trial Procedures In Malaysian Courts

Chinese 中文

English Version

马来西亚法庭审讯程序的6个贴士

1. Introduction

介绍
It is crucial for a party, namely the Plaintiff to have a cause of action before he commences an action against the Defendant. A cause of action exists if there is a Plaintiff who can sue, a Defendant who can be sued and there are material facts which entitles the Plaintiff to succeed.

对于原告一方来说,在提告被告人之前必须确定诉讼因由的存在。在一个原告人可以提告,被告人可以被告,且有可让原告人成功的关键事件存在下,诉讼因由就可被断定是存在的。

However, one must take note of the fact that a claim can possibly be dismissed before the case is set for trial, particularly on the preliminary issues. For examples, the limitation period, locus standi, wrong mode of commencing an action, absence of parties and non-compliance of procedural rules.

然而,必须注意的是一次诉讼可能在审讯前就被驳回,尤其是因为审讯前的一些因素。比方说,时效性,诉讼地位,以错误的形式展开诉讼,相关人士缺席,不遵守程序规则。

2Commencement of action and Pleadings (in brief)

诉讼的开始与诉状 (简要)
i) Endorsement of writ of summon-O6 r 2
传唤令状中的附录- O6 r2
Before a writ is issued, it shall be endorsed with a statement of claim, which shall comply with the requirements of pleadings under Order 18 of Rules of Court 2012 (ROC). The Plaintiff shall serve a statement of claim on the defendant before the expiration of fourteen days after the Defendant enters an appearance.

在发出令状以前,需附上申索陈述书,该书必须遵守在《2012法庭规则》(ROC)第18号命令下对诉状的要求。原告应于被告提呈出庭备忘录后十四日届满前向被告递送申索陈述书

ii) Appearance

出庭

A defendant who wishes to defend himself must enter a memorandum of appearance (O12 r 12) to prevent the judgment in default of appearance to be made against him under O13.

一名欲辩护的被告必须成交一份出庭备忘录 (O12 r12)以避免原告在O13下申请对被告不利的“缺席判决”。

iii) Summary Judgment

简易判决

Summary judgment is available to the Plaintiff if the Defendant has no  defense or no other reason for there  to be a trial. However, the Defendant may apply to dismiss Plaintiff’s action if there is no statement of claim served on him or the Defendant has not entered appearance.

如果被告没有人和辩护理由或没有其他应当进行审讯的理由,原告可以申请简易判决。然而,被告可以在原告没有递送陈述申索书或原告没有出庭的情况下申请撤销原告的简易判决申请。


iv) Close of pleadings

诉状程序的结束

Pleadings are deemed to be closed 14 days after service of the Reply or, if there is no Reply but only a Defense to Counterclaim, after service of the Defense to Counterclaim. If neither Reply nor a Defense to Counterclaim is served, pleadings are deemed to be closed 14 days after the Defense is served.

诉状程序将在递送答复声明后,或在没有答复声明但只有反诉辩护声明的情况下,递送反诉辩护声明后,的十四天被视为结束。假设没有答复声明或没有反诉辩护声明递送的情况下,诉状程序将在辩护声明递送以后14天结束。

3. Pre-Trial Case Management

审前案件管理

Upon the close of pleadings, the Court will call the parties up for a pre-trial case management which all parties shall compile all their documents and identify the witnesses. The Court will then give direction as to what documents are needed to be filed in court together with the timelines for all fillings. The timeline shall be complied according to a strict timeline unless an extension of time is allowed by court, otherwise it will result in a dismissal of claim.

在诉讼程序管理结束时,法庭会传召各方以进行审前案件管理,各方将汇总文件以及辨认证人。法庭将给与何种文件需要呈交上法庭与呈交时间的指示。呈交时间必须被严格遵守除非法庭允许延长时间,否则将会导致诉讼被撤销。

O34 Rules of Court 2012 (ROC)

O34 2012法庭规则》


Court’s orders and directions for just, expeditious and economical disposal of proceedings

The court may direct the parties to attend a pre-trial case management hearing relating to matters such as settlement, mediation, preparation of bundle of documents, witnesses, mode of giving evidence-in-chief and length and date of trial, at any time before action is tried. The court may also dismiss the action, strike out the defense or counterclaim, or enter judgment, or make such other order as it thinks fit.

法庭为了确保以公正、便捷、经济的方式处理诉讼而下达命令与指示。

法庭将指示各方在审讯之前的任何时候参与审前案件管理的聆讯,聆讯所处理的事务包括和解,调解,准备文件,证人,呈交主要证据的方式,审讯所需的时间以及审讯的日期。法庭也可能撤销诉讼、辩护声明或反诉声明、或下达判决,或其他法庭认为合理的命令。

Matters in pre-trial case management:

审前案件管理中的事务
Classification of documents:

文件分类
A list of documents that may be used at trial shall be delivered by both Plaintiff and Defendant and exchange between parties on their bundles of documents which the agreed and non-agreed bundles of documents should also be prepared.

一份可能用到的文件的文件列表应该递送给原告和被告,双方将交换各自的文件包,包括准备号商定与非商定的文件。

Discovery-O24

证据开示-O24


Generally, a party can obtain disclosure of relevant information and documents that are or have been in possession, custody or power of the other party. However, it is subject to the law on privilege. The rationale of discovery is because in civil procedure the parties do not take each other by surprise.

一般来说,一方可以使另一方披露起所拥有、保管、掌握的相关信息与文件。然而,这受到证据保护法的约束。证据开示的基本原理是为了确保各方措手不及。

Interrogatories-O26

询问-O26


The objective of interrogatories is to allow a party to disclose facts on oath from his opponent which this makes the burden of proof easier. The application for leave of court to serve interrogatories is normally make before the close of pleadings and after discovery. The court has discretion to consider the issue of relevancy and necessity.

询问程序的目的是为了让一方在另一方宣誓的情况下披露事实以让举证责任更简单。关于递送询问程序的法庭许可令的申请一般是在诉状程序结束前及证据开示程序之后才进行。法院拥有考虑该议题的相关性和必要性的权利。

a) Bundle of pleadings

控状
i. Writ

i. 令状
ii. Statement of Claim

ii. 索赔声明
iii. Defence

iii. 辩护声明
iv. Replies

iv. 回复声明
v. Affidavit (if any)

v. 宣誓书(如有)
vi. Relevant notice or order which the parties may relied or had been disposed

vi. 任何相关通知或命令,假设当事人将在庭审时使用或已解决。

b) Bundle of documents

文件
Exhibits are in the form of bundles which separated into 3 parts (A,B,C), it is part of the affidavit which annexed to the pleadings

证据将被捆绑并分成3部分 (A、B、C),他是附于诉状中的宣誓书的一部分。


i) Part A [O. 34, r2 (2) (c) and (d)]:

A 部分, [O34, r2 (2) (c) and (d)]


-Documents that the parties agreed on the content and nothing is being disputed.
-Plaintiff’s solicitor prepares the Common Agreed Bundle of Documents.

– 双方皆认可内容的文件,不具争议。

– 原告律师准备共同商定的文件包


ii) Part B [O. 34, r2(2)(e)(i)]: 

B 部分 [O. 34, r2(2)(e)(i)]: 
-Documents that the parties are disputing the content instead of the authenticity

-各方在文件内容上具有分歧,而并非针对文件的真实性。

iii)Part C [O. 34, r2(2)(e)(ii)]

C 部分 [O. 34, r2(2)(e)(ii)]
-Documents that the parties are disputing both the authenticity and contents
-Documents that placed in Part C is inadmissible as evidence
– 双方关于文件的真实性和内容都具有分歧

– 置于C部分的文件是无法成为呈堂证供的


Any document in the bundle of document that is being disputed will be marked as ‘ID’, which means parties who wish to adduce it as evidence must call the maker of the document as witness to tender the document in the court, otherwise it must be satisfied that the evidence falls outside the scope of hearsay to prove its admissibility.

任何在文件包中的文件被提出争议以后将被标签为 “ID”, 这代表任何想要呈上此证据的人必须传召文件的制作人出庭作证以向法庭成交证据,或者必须证明该证据并不在“传闻“的范围之内以证明其可采性。

c) Statement of Agreed facts– O. 34 r2(2)(j)
商定事实的陈述– O. 34 r2(2)(j)
Statement of agreed facts refer to facts which are not disputed by all parties and can be found from the statement of claim and defence. The statement is to be filled in court after the parties have exchanged the drafts between them to be perused, corrected and ultimately finalized. Once admitted, then it is not necessary for the parties to call witnesses to prove the facts stated in the statement of agreed facts

商定事实的陈述是指各方没有提出争议的事情,这可在申索和抗辩书中找到。双方需在交换草稿、审阅、更正并最终定稿号,向法院递交该陈述。一旦接纳,各方就没有必要传召任何证人证明在商定事实的陈述中的任何事件。

d) Statement of Issues to be Tried– O34 r 2(2)(k)

待审问题的陈述 – O34 r 2(2)(k)
Statement of Issues to be tried contains the main legal issues in dispute between parties. It helps the court by leading the trial proceeding to the right direction. The court may finalizes these issues between the parties and fix for them the date upon which the document is to be filed.

待审问题的陈述 包括在双方问题中的主要的法律问题。这将帮助法庭并引领审讯走向正确的方向。法庭将与各方敲定最终问题并预设此文件应呈交的日期。

e) Statement of Witnesses- O. 34 r2(2)(l)-(s)
证供  O. 34 r2(2)(l)-(s)


The court may utilize the case management session to finalize the list of witnesses between the parties. The court in doing so will evaluate the relevancy of each and every witness that parties intend to call and supervise them in relation to whether the witness should be called.

法庭可利用案件管理会确定当事人间的证人名单。如此,法院将评估各方所打算传唤的每一位证人的相关性,并监督各方是否应该传唤该证人。

The period within which the parties have to exchange and file their list of witnesses, as well as the statement of witnesses who may give evidence at trial. The court may also determine whether an order should be made limiting the number of expert witnesses.

双方在期限内必须交换与提交他们证人的名单以及可能在审判中作证的证人的口供。法庭还可以决定是否下达限制专家证人人数的命令。

f) Mediation– O34 r 2(a)


调解– O34 r 2(a)


In a High Court matter, when both parties agree to go for mediation, the judge will appoint a session court judge to act as a mediator. The mediator will fix appointments for solicitors and if both parties fail to reach a settlement then the case will be referred to the judge.

在高庭的案件中,当双方同意进行调解时,法官将指派一名地庭法官担任调解员。调解员将与律师确定委任及若是当双方无法达成调解协定时暗降将转交给法官。

The parties, counsel and mediator will attend to the mediation. Both parties will propose anything relevant, but they are not bound by rules; they will refer to related documents but not the pleadings. Besides, it is possible that D may propose any order.

当事人、律师和调解员将参与调解。双方将提出任何相关建议,但他们不受规则约束;他们将参考相关文件而并非诉状。此为被告有可能建议任何命令。

4. Course of Trial

4.  审讯过程


After the case management has ended, if the dispute is not resolved out of court, the civil lawsuit will move to trial.

案件管理结束以后,如果争议未能庭外和解,民事诉讼将进入审理阶段。

a) Right to begin [O34 r 4]:
开始的权力 [O34 r 4]:


The court has discretion to direct which party to begin. Normally it will be the Plaintiff who shall begin by opening his case. However, if the burden of proof is on the Defendant then the D is entitled to begin.

法庭有权力指示任何一方开始审讯。一般而言是由原告以开始其案件为起点。然而,如果举证责任落在被告身上那么被告则有权利开始。

b) Procedure at trial:

审讯程序

The Plaintiff may start first which the witness can be called, or the Plaintiff may testify himself. Documents must be produced for both Plaintiff and his witness to identify. As the Affidavits of Evidence-in-chief for all witnesses would generally have been exchanged before the trial, examination-in-chief is usually a very short process. This is followed by the Defendant’s cross-examination (CE)of the plaintiff’s witnesses. If the plaintiff’s witnesses are cross-examined by the defendant, the plaintiff is entitled to re-examine his witnesses. Additional issues that were not raised during CE cannot be brought up.

原告可以以传召证人开始,或自己出庭作证。原告及其证人必须出示文件以确认。由于所有证人的主要证据的宣誓书一般都会在审讯前与对方交换,因此主要审查一般是一个很简短的过程。随后就是被告对原告证人的盘问(CE)。如果原告证人被被告盘问,那么原告便有权力重新盘问证人。不能提出CE期间没有提出的其他问题。

It should be noted that traditionally the witness will give an oral statement, now it is replaced by a written statement, herein refer to the witness statement (as mentioned above) and the other party reserves the right to ask the Examination-in-chief’s (EIC) counsel. The reason behind this is to save the time of the court. During the EIC, the questions to be asked are only limited to those that the document needs to be marked.

需要注意的是,传统上证人会进行口头陈述,如今已被书面陈述取代,以下简称书面陈述,另一方保留询问主考(EIC)律师的权力。这背后的原因时为了节省法庭的事件。在EIC期间,需要问的问题仅限于文件需标记的问题。

After Plaintiff has called all the witnesses and his case is closed. The Defendant will thereafter start his case by repeating the same process.

在原告传召所有证人且他的案件结束后,被告随后将通过重复同样的过程开始他的案件。


The Plaintiff will make a speech in reply.  After all the witnesses have given their evidence, the Court may hear oral closing submissions or seek written closing submissions, followed by the decision of the judge at the conclusion of trial which the judge may either allow or dismiss the Plaintiff’s claim. The losing party will have to pay the cost of the successful party.

原告将作答辩。在所有证人提供证据后,法院可以听取口头结案陈词或寻求书面结案陈词,然后在审判结束时法官做出决定,法官可以允许或驳回原告的索赔。败方必须支付胜方的庭费。

c) Order of speeches– O35 r 4

出言顺序– O35 r 4


Plaintiff begins- O35 r 4(2)


原告开始- O35 r 4(2)


Plaintiff shall begin by opening his case. If the Defendant elects not to adduce evidence, then the Defendant will make the last speech. The Plaintiff has the right to reply only on the fresh point of law raised by the Defendant, if there is any.

原告须首先展开他的案子。如果被告选择不提供证据,被告则可以进行最后一次发言。原告有权仅对被告提出新的法律观点做出答复,(若有)。

If the Defendant elects to adduce evidence, the Plaintiff will be the party who makes the last speech. The Defendant then has the right to reply only on the fresh point of law raised by the Plaintiff, if there is any.

如果被告选择举证,原告将是最后发言的一方。然后,被告有权针对原告提出的新法律要点做出答复,(若有)。

Defendant begins- O35 r 4(6)

被告开始- O35 r 4(6)

If Plaintiff who is in defence does not adduce evidence, then the Plaintiff may make the last speech. The Defendant then has the right to reply only on the fresh point of law raised by the Plaintiff, if there is any.

如果进行辩护的原告选择不提供证据,原告可以做出最后一次发言。然后,被告仅有权对原告提出的新法律要点作出答复,如有。

If the Plaintiff elects to adduce evidence, then the Defendant will make the last speech. The Plaintiff then has the right to reply only on the fresh point of law raised by the Defendant, if there is any.

如果原告选择提出证据,被告则将进行最后一次发言。然后,原告有权对被告所提出的新法律要点做出答复,如有。

d) Evidence -O38

证据-O38


The general rule is that a witness to be examined orally.

一般原则是证人应该被口头盘查。

i) Evidence by statement of witness– O38 r 2

证人陈述的证据– O38 r 2


In writ action, witness shall give evidence-in-chief  which a witness can only give evidence of facts within his own knowledge and recollection, unless the court otherwise order or the parties agree and is subject to CE, and in default of attendance, his statement is inadmissible without the leave of court.

在令状诉讼中,证人应提供主要证据,即证人只能提供其所知所记的事实,除非法庭另外下达指令或各方同意以及将接受盘问,及在缺席的情况下,未经法庭许可,他的书面陈述将不被受理。

The Court may order any witness to give evidence instead of the statement of the witness at the trial.

法庭可命令任何证人给与口头证据来替代证人的书面陈述。

ii) Evidence of particular facts– O38 r 3

ii) 特定事实的证据O38 r 3


The court may order that evidence of particular fact shall be given at trial, such as by statement on oath of information of belief; by the production of documents or entries in books; by copies of documents; by the specific newspaper which contains statement of the fact in which there is common knowledge.

法庭可命令在审讯时提供特定的事实证据,例如宣誓下关于对信息确信的陈述;通过提交文件或书本条目;通过文件复印本;通过特定报刊阐述的公认事实。

iii) Subpoena of witness– O38 r 14-22
证人传票– O38 r 14-22


Subpoenas are documents issued to ensure the attendance of witnesses at trial, failing which, the affidavits they have submitted as their evidence-in-chief will be rejected by the Court. Three types of subpoenas may be issued: 1) requires the witness to attend Court to give oral evidence; 2) requires the person named to produce documents without the obligation to attend Court personally; 3) requires the witness to both give evidence in Court and produce documents. Witness, if bound to attend will be given a reasonable sum of expenses.

传票是为了确保证人出席而发出的文件,否则,他们呈交给法庭的宣誓书将被法院拒绝。三种传票可以被发出:1)要求证人出庭作证;2)要求被指明的人初始相关文件而没有出庭的义务;3)要求证人在法庭上作证并出示文件。证人,如果必须出席,将获得合理的费用补贴。

iv) Evidence by deposition– O39

以录制证供形式提供证据– O39

The court may act under the interest of justice, make order in Form 69 for the examination on oath before judge at any place of a person which the evidence may be used at the trial.

法院可为了实践公正,以第69号表格的形式下达命令以要求一人在任何地方在法官面前进行宣誓供证,以供在审讯中使用。

v) Examination of a person who is out of jurisdiction-O39 r2

对不在管辖范围内的人进行调问-O39 r2


If a person is out of jurisdiction then an application may be made for order to issue a letter of request to the judicial authorities of the country which the person is to take evidence; and if the government of that country allows him in that country to be examined before a person appointed by the court for an order appointing a special examiner to take the evidence of the witness in that country.

如果一个人不再管辖范围内,则可申请命令向该人所在的司法当局发出请求书要求进行取证;如果该国政府允许其在该国接受调问,纳闷法庭则可下达命令指派一名特别审查员前往该国收集政治。



An application can also be made for the appointment as special consul in that country in which the evidence is to be taken or his deputy, if there subsists with that country a Civil Procedure Convention providing for the taking of the evidence of any person in that country for the assistance of proceedings in the High Court; or with consent of the Minister.

如果该国存在民事诉讼公约规定以允许我国在该国取证以协助高庭程序,则也可以向该国的特别领事或其副领事进行申请;或者获得部长的首肯。

vi) Expert Witness– O40A

vi) 专业证人– O40A



It is the duty of an expert to assist the Court on the matters within his expertise. This duty overrides any obligation to the person from whom he has received instructions or by whom he is paid.

专家的责任是在其专业领域中协助法庭。这义务优先于其所接受指示或支付报酬的人的任何义务。


The court may also limit the number of expert witnesses who may be called at the trial to such numbers as it may specify.

法院还可将审判中可能被传唤的专家证人人书限制在指定的人数内。

An expert report shall give details of the expert’s qualification, to list out the issues which has been asked, the basis of the reasoning given in making the report, a summary of his opinion, a conclusion, a statement of understanding of the expert witness in giving the said report.

专家报告应该详细说明专家的资格,列明所提问的问题,所提出的报告,专家意见的总结,结论,专家证人的理解陈述。做出上述报告。

The court may also direct a discussion between the expert that aimed to show the issues on which they agree or disagree, further provide the reasoning.

法院还可以指导专家之间的交流,目的是理清他们在同意或不同意的问题,以进一步提供推理。

vii) Documentary Evidence (see the bundle of documents as mentioned above)

vii) 文件证据(参见上述文件包)

Agreed bundle: It is admissible, but the truth may be challenged

商定文件包:可呈堂,但内容可被挑战


Non-agreed bundle: The admissibility and contents may be challenged.

非商定文件包:可采性与内容均可被挑战

viii) Submission of no case to answer

viii) “不答辩“的陈词


It is a principle of law that the Defendant may submit a no case to answer at the end of the Plaintiff’s case if the Defendant is of the view that:
·         The Plaintiff had failed to establish a case in law; or
·         The evidence that was led by the Plaintiff is so unsatisfactory or unreliable.

法律上,被告可以在原告结案后做出“不答辩“的陈词,假设被告认为:

  • 原告未能在法律上证明其案件;或
  • 原告提供的证据十分不令人满意或不可靠

Once a defendant in civil proceedings makes a submission of no case to answer and elects not to call evidence, then all the evidence led by the plaintiff must be assumed to be correct.

一旦民事诉讼中的被告人提出不答辩并选择不传唤任何证据,则必须假定原告人所提供的所有证据为正确的。

In a decided case of Govindasamy s/o Muthulingam v Ooi Kee Chye [2012], Chew Soo Hoo JC held that if the Plaintiff fails to prove his case then there is no need for the Defendant to rebut and thereafter can make a submission of no case to answer.

Govindasamy s/o Muthulingam v Ooi Kee Chye [2012] 一案,法官Chew Soo Hoo 判定假设原告未能证明其诉求,那么被告无需反驳,并可以做出不答辩陈词。

Storey v Storey [1961], p68:
“There are, however, two sets of circumstances under which a Defendant may submit that he has no case to answer. In the one case, there may be submission that, accepting the Plaintiff’s evidence at its face value, no case has been established in law, and in the other that the evidence led for the Plaintiff is so unsatisfactory and unreliable that the court should find that the burden of proof has not been discharged.”

Storey v Storey [1961], 68页:

“然而,在两种情况下,被告可以提出不答辩陈词。第一种情况是,根据证据表面的价值接受原告的证据,原告无法在法律上证明其诉求;另一种情况则是原告的证据十分令人不满意和不可靠使到法院应该认定原告并无法卸下举证责任。

Tan Kim Khuan v Tan Kee Kiat (M) Sdn Bhd [1998] 1 CLJ SUPP 147, p706:


“If the party on whom the burden lies fails to discharge it, the other party need not call any evidence. In that event, it will not avail him to turn round and say that the respondent has not established his.”

Tan Kim Khuan v Tan Kee Kiat (M) Sdn Bhd [1998] 1 CLJ SUPP 147, 706:
“肩负举证责任的一方倘若无法证明自己的诉求,那么另一方不需要举出任何证据。在这情况下,他不被允许转过身说答辩人没有证明他的立场。 “


It is observed in the case of Raja Chandranath Roy v Ramjai Mazumdar 6 BLR 303 as which the respondent can say: “It is wholly immaterial whether I prove my case or no. You have not proved yours”

Raja Chandranath Roy v Ramjai Mazumdar 6 BLR 303 一案可以看到答辩人说:“ 这完全不关乎我是否能证明我的立场,而是你有没有证明你的“

Ng Ben Thong & Ors v. Krishnan A/L Arumugam [1997] 1 LNS 85; [1998] 5 MLJ 579
“The parties cannot depend on their pleadings; they must prove the facts in their pleadings with evidence. Thus, pleadings and evidence go hand in hand. If the Plaintiff cannot prove his case, then the Defendant may make a submission of no case to answer. However, if Plaintiff has established his case, the Defendant cannot just make a submission of no case to answer and rely on his allegations in his statement of defence without adducing any evidence.”

Ng Ben Thong & Ors v. Krishnan A/L Arumugam [1997] 1 LNS 85; [1998] 5 MLJ 579

当事人不能依赖他们的诉状;他们必须根据证据证明诉状中的事实。因此,诉状和证据是相辅相成的。如果原告不能证明他的诉求,那么被告可以提出无案答辩。但,如果被告已经证明了自己的诉求,那么被告就无法提出无案答辩且依靠去辩护陈述中的指控而不提供任何证据。

      How Practical is the “submission of no case to answer” by the Defendant?

被告人的“无案答辩”陈词的做法有多实际?

Where the Defendant would have cross-examined the witnesses of the Plaintiff. The question will then be whether the Plaintiff has established a prima facie case at this point. At this juncture, the Plaintiff would have brought in all the evidence required to prove its pleaded case. The Plaintiff would then close its case.

被告人会盘问原告证人。那么问题将是原告此时是否已经初步证明自己的诉求。此时,原告应已经提供所有需要证明诉求的证据。原告随后将结束其陈案。

Prima Facie case: A case in which the evidence produced is sufficient to enable a decision or verdict to be made unless the evidence is rebutted.

初步证明案件:法官所提供的证据在无反驳的情况下足以做出判决。

However, the Defendant would not be aware of whether there is in fact a prima facie case established by the Plaintiff after the close of Plaintiff’s case following such cross-examination by the defence counsel. The judge will not let it be known  to the parties as to whether there is or not a case to answer. The counsel for Defendant would have to access the evidence adduced by the Plaintiff and the strength of his cross-examination and documentary evidence and determine whether the judge would make a finding that the Plaintiff has not established a prima facie case.

然而,辩护律师进行盘问,原告案件结案后,被告并不知道原告是否已经初步证明了案件。法官也不会让当时人知道。被告律师必须查询原告所提出的所有证据及他自身的盘问和书面证据的效力,并推测法官是否会裁定原告没有初步证明案件。


Therefore, counsel for the Defendant would have to make a serious decision at this point. If he is confident that the Plaintiff has not established a prima facie case, then he would end the proceedings without further adducing evidence. He would state to the judge that there is no case to answer. Once he has made such an election, it is irrevocable.

因此,这对于被告律师来说是十分严肃的决定。 如果他确信原告人没有初步证明案情,那么他无需要提供进一步证据就可以结束诉讼程序。他还会向法官声明没有案件可以回答。一旦他做出这个决定就不可以撤销。

    If Defendant elects not to adduce evidence

如果被告选择不呈交证据
If the court is of the view that the Plaintiff had proven its case, the Defendant is not allowed to adduce any evidence. So, the Defendant who intends to make submission of no case to answer must be prepared to stand by that submission and not call any defence witness to defend against the Plaintiff’s claim.

如果法院认为原告已经证明了其诉求,那么被告就不再被允许提交证据。因此,想要呈交“无案答辩“的被告应该准备好陈述及不传唤任何辩护证人对原告的索赔进行抗辩。

xi) Application to re-open case

xi) 申请重开案件

The court has discretion to re-open the case to recall a witness or to admit fresh evidence but it should be used sparingly.

法庭可酌情决定是否重审案件,找回证人或接纳新证据,但应谨慎使用。

5. Judgment and orders- O42

5. 判决与命令-O42

A judgment is a decision to an action which is final; an order is a decision which is interlocutory in nature. Judgment or order of the court will take effect from the date of its pronouncement unless the court otherwise directs, and the taking effect on another date should only be exercised on good grounds by the court. (O42 r 7).

判决是对最终行动的判定;命令时一项具有中间性质的决定。法院的判决或命令将在宣判日起生效,除非法院另有指示。法院只能充分理由的情况下下达其他的生效日。


If the judgment or order has not yet been perfected then the court has absolute jurisdiction to alter, vary, modify or set aside its own judgment or order and it is to be made judiciously. The general rule is that the court could not alter, vary or set aside a perfected judgment or order due to reason of functus officio unless it comes under slip rule (O20).

如果判决或命令还没有被法庭完善处理,则法院拥有更改、修改或撤销判决或命令的绝对权力而这必须审慎。一般而言,法院因为“已履行职务原则“而不可修改判决或命令除非落入”slip rule”的范畴(O20).

However, inherent power under O92 r 4 allows a perfected order to be set aside if it is made illegally; where the court lacks jurisdiction; and in the interest of justice where there is a serious defect.

然而,根据O92 r4的固有权力,法庭可以撤销已完善的命令,如果该命令是非法的;法庭不具有管辖权;在严重缺陷下为了维护正义。

6. Conclusion
6. 结语


Any party may appeal against the decision of the court and may also apply for a stay of execution of judgment pending appeal in order to prevent a miscarriage of justice. Not every lawsuit ever goes through the full range of procedures and all the way to trial, some civil cases can be settled out-of-court or by mutual agreement between the parties.

任何一方都可以对法院提出上诉,也可以在上诉期间申请展缓执行判决,以防止司法不公。并非每起诉讼都会经过所有程序和审理,一些民事案件可庭外和解或双方协商解决。


The purpose of a trial is to resolve legal disputes that parties could not settle by themselves or through a less formal method. It is also no doubt a way to secure fair and impartial administration of justice between the parties to the action as all the evidence will be examined in trial and parties will be given a chance to be heard.

审判的目的是为了解决当事人无法自行解决或通过不正式的方法解决法律纠纷。毫无疑问,这也是确保诉讼各方之间可以公平供证地进行司法过程地方式,因为所有证据在审讯时都会被审查,各方也有机会发表意见。

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