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Bankruptcy in Malaysia General Information
马来西亚破产法令律师

1     In Malaysia  the law  provides that the minimum sum of  debt owing by a debtor is  RM30,000 before a creditor may commence  bankruptcy  proceedings against the debtor.   The  creditor  normally takes a course of legal action  and obtains a judgment upon the debt.

For the full text in English click on the link below:

7 Tips on Bankruptcy in Malaysia Discharge Disqualification Annulment Lawyers

根据马来西亚的法律规定,一个人的如果欠债超过3万令吉,他都有可能被债主申请“破产”。债权人通常会先为其债权对债款人展开法律诉讼并在取得最终判决后才入禀法庭对债务人展开破产呈请。

2     One of the possible  modes  of execution of judgment is a Writ of Seizure and Sale or the creditor  may   issue a bankruptcy notice  and serve the same on the debtor.     Upon the failure of the debtor to settle the debt in compliance with the said notice,  the  debtor   commits   an act of bankruptcy,     the creditor may  commence  a bankruptcy action against the debtor.

其中一个判决执行模式可是通过扣押令状和强制销售令或债权人可通过给债务人发出“破产通知书”送达债务人。如果债务人仍无法服从该通知书偿还债款,债权人便可来对债务人展开破产呈请,因为债务人已经犯下了“破产行为”。

 

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The Act of Bankruptcy
破产行为

Ways in which an act of bankruptcy is committed

在什么情况下会犯下破产行为

3     The act of  bankruptcy is required prior to the commencement of  any bankruptcy proceedings.  The debtor may  commit an act of bankruptcy in a number of  situations.   The categories of acts of bankruptcy  set out in section 3(1) of the Bankruptcy Act are as follows:

在债权人入禀法庭开始任何破产程序前,债务人必须已经犯下了破产行为。债务人可以在许多情况下犯下破产行为。破产法规第3(1)條文列出了不同类型的破产行为,如下:

3(1)      A debtor commits an Act of bankruptcy in each of the following cases:

3(1)在以下的情况下,债务人会犯下破产行为:

(a)     if in Malaysia or elsewhere he makes a conveyance or assignment of his property to a trustee or trustees for the benefit of his creditors generally;

(a)如果在马来西亚或任何其他地区,债务人在其债权人的利益下,作出或安排其财产的让与或转让给他其中一位债权人的受托人;

(b)     if in Malaysia or elsewhere he makes a fraudulent conveyance, gift, delivery or transfer of his property or of any part thereof;

(b)如果在马来西亚或任何其他地区,债务人欺诈地让与,馈赠,运送或移走其财产或以上的任何部分;
(c)    if in Malaysia or elsewhere he makes any conveyance or transfer of his property or of any part thereof, or creates any charge thereon which would under this or any other written law for the time being in force be void as a fraudulent preference if he were adjudged bankrupt;

(c)若在马来西亚或任何其他地区,如果债务人在被判定破产的情况下作出或安排其财产任何部分的让与或转让或押记,那一切都将会在法律上被裁定为无效,因为根据本法令或任何其它法令,以上的行动皆属欺诈行为;

(d)     if with intent to defeat or delay his creditors he does any of the following things;

(d)债务人在意图作废或拖延其债权人下作出或安排以下任何的事情;

(i)     departs out of Malaysia or being out of Malaysia remains out of Malaysia, or

(i)离开马来西亚,或暂时不在马来西亚,或仍然不在马来西亚,或

(ii)     departs from his dwelling-house or otherwise absents himself, or begins to keep house or closes his place of business, or

(ii)匿藏或不出现在其通常或最后为人知的居住地方或营业地点,或搬他的住所,或以其他方式让他自己行踪不明,或

(iii)     submits collusively or fraudulently to an adverse judgment or order for the payment of money;

(iii)以共谋或欺诈的方式来服从针对他的不利的判决或偿债的管令;

(e)     if execution issued against him has been levied by seizure of his property under process in an action or in any civil proceeding in the High Court, Sessions Court or Magistrates Court where the judgment, including costs, is for an amount of one thousand ringgit or more;

(e)任何已经在高等法庭,地方法庭,或裁判法院进行中针对他而进行的任何或民事诉讼对发出了对他任何价值1千吉或超过(包括诉讼费)的财产强制扣押令;

(f)     if he files in the court a declaration of his inability to pay his debts or presents a bankruptcy petition against himself;

(f)债务人自己向法庭提呈一份以宣誓方式准备的“无法偿债声明书”或入禀法庭提交破产呈请;

(g)      if he gives notice to any of his creditors that he has suspended or that he is about to suspend payment of his debts;

(g)如果他通知其任何一位债权人他已经暂停或即将中止偿还他所欠下的债务;

(h)      if he makes to any two or more of his creditors, not being partners, an offer of composition with his creditors or a proposal for a scheme of arrangement of his affairs, and such offer or proposal is not followed by the registration within fourteen days thereafter of a deed of arrangement with his creditors, in accordance with the rules for the time being in force for the registration of deeds of arrangement under this Act;

(八)如果债务人向其任何两位或以上不是其合作伙伴的债权人,作出任何关于债务偿还的和解建议或协议偿还债款的计划,但是却没有根据此法令现有的条规在14天内为那些安排,建议或计划来登记注册随后准备契约来约束所有债券人;

(i)     if a creditor has obtained a final judgment or final order against him for any amount and execution thereon not having been stayed has served on him in Malaysia, or by leave of the court elsewhere, a bankruptcy notice under this Act requiring him to pay the judgment debt or sum ordered to be paid in accordance with the terms of the judgment or order with interest quantified up to the date of issue of the bankruptcy notice, or to secure or compound for it to the satisfaction of the creditor or the court; and he does not within seven days after service of the notice in case the service is effected in Malaysia, and in case the service is effected elsewhere then within the time limited in that behalf by the order giving leave to effect the service, either comply with the requirements of the notice or satisfy the court that he has a counter-claim, set off or cross demand which equals or exceeds the amount of the judgment debt or sum ordered to be paid and which he could not set up in the action in which the judgment was obtained or in the proceedings in which the order was obtained:

Provided that for the purposes of this paragraph and of section 5 any person who is for the time being entitled to enforce a final judgment or final order shall be deemed to be a creditor who has obtained a final judgment or final order;
于债主在依据一份没有被作废(法庭未曾宣告无效)也就是仍然有效的法庭最终判决或管令,或在法庭的应许下向在马来西亚的债务人根据本法令送交“破产通知书”勒令他偿还包括至今为止的利息与债务或命令中所要求支付的款项,或与债权人、法庭进行协商之 7天后(如果债务人是在马来西亚以外的其他地方就将看情况而定),如果他仍不服从通知书的条件,或让法庭满意他有能相等于或超过被索金额的反告,抵消或反要求权利以及看似沒有合理的希望能出庭进行抗辩或对法庭的最终判决提出抗议。

根据此条文以及第五条文,任何当时被法庭最终判决或指令赋予执行判决/管令权力者都将被视为取得那最终判决或管令的债权人。

(j)     if the officer charged with the execution of a writ of attachment or other process makes a return that the debtor was possessed of no property liable to seizure; and for the purposes of this paragraph the date when the writ is lodged with the officer shall be deemed to be the date of the act of bankruptcy.

(J),如果扣押或其他程序令状的执行官员向法庭汇报债务人在其欲执行令状之际已经没有任何能够被扣押的财产;那么根据本条文,在强制令状被执行的当日起债务人就已经开始犯下了破产行为。

Bankruptcy Petition
4     After the act of bankruptcy is committed, the creditor files a Bankruptcy Petition.

破产呈请
4一旦债务人放下了任何破产行为,债权人便可入禀法庭开始破产呈请。

Receiving and Adjudicating Orders
5     The Receiving and Adjudicating Orders, generally known as the AORO may be  granted after   hearing the Bankruptcy Petition if the creditor makes out sufficient ground against the debtor.

如果法庭满意债权人已经成功证明债务人犯下了破产行为以及他所拖欠的债务数额已被确定,法庭就可判下财产接管令 (Receiving Order)与审裁管令 (Adjudicating Order), 简称AORO。

Disqualifications of Bankrupt
6     The Disqualifications of Bankrupt   are   set out in section 36  of the Bankruptcy Act  as follows:

破产的后果
一名破产人将会根据破产法令第36条文丧失以下资格:

36(1)     Where a debtor is adjudged bankrupt he shall subject to this Act, be disqualified for-

6( )债务人一旦被判定破产,他将会丧失-);

(a)     being appointed or acting as a Sessions Court Judge or Magistrate;

(一)受委任或出任法庭庭主或推事的资格;

(b)     being nominated or elected to or holding or exercising the office of Councillor of a local authority.

(二)受委任或被选为地方政府议员的资格;。

36(2)     The disqualifications to which a bankrupt is subject under this section shall be removed and cease if and when-

6( )一名破产人因破产所丧失的权利与资格将遵照第36(2)条例下被解除或停止当-─

解除破产的方式

the adjudication of bankruptcy against him is annulled; or

(一)如果一名破产人想要解除破产;

(b)     he obtains from the court his discharge with a certificate to the effect that his bankruptcy was caused by misfortune without any misconduct on his part.

( b)他可以在被宣布破产后的任何时候向法庭申请庭令来解除破产,法庭在聆听该申请时,必须考虑破产人的行为以及状况,然后决定准许或不准许该项申请。

36(3)     The court may grant or withhold such certificate as it thinks fit, but any refusal of such certificate shall be subject to appeal.

36(3)法庭可以准予或不准许解除该证书的颁发,但是如果证书不被准许,破产人可以针对该项决定进行上诉。

Consequences of refusal of discharge
7     The  Consequences of refusal of discharge of Bankrupt   are   set out in section 38  of the Bankruptcy Act  as follows:
破产解除申请被驳回的后果
7 载于破产法令第38条文关于破产解除申请被驳回的后果如下:

38(1)     Where a bankrupt has not obtained his discharge-

( )如果破产人的破产解除申请不被批准-

(a)     the bankrupt shall be incompetent to maintain any action (other than an action for damages in respect of an injury to his person) without the previous sanction of the Director General of Insolvency;

(一)
破产人将无法在没有破产管理官的允许下起诉任何人(个人受伤赔偿除外);

(b)     the bankrupt shall once in every six months render to the Director General of Insolvency an account of all moneys and property which have come to his hands for his own use during the preceding six months, and shall pay and make over to the Director General of Insolvency so much of the same moneys and property as have not been expended in the necessary expenses of maintenance of himself and his family;

(二)破产人必须每6个月向破产管理官呈报所受用到的家人与自用款项或财产,任何剩余款项或财产则必须交给破产管理官;

(ba)     notwithstanding paragraph (b), the bankrupt shall immediately report to the Director General of Insolvency the receipt of any moneys, property or proceeds in any form from property the value of which exceeds five hundred ringgit and which moneys, property or proceeds do not form part of his usual income and the bankrupt shall, as soon as may be required by the Director General of Insolvency, pay or make over such moneys, property or proceeds to the Director General of Insolvency;

(ba)尽管条文(b)这么说,破产人必须通知和移交给破产管理官他所收到的任何价值超过500令吉以上非正式收入的任何款项或 财产并在破产管理官的命令下,越早越好,交还或转让那些款项或财产给破产管理官;

(bb)      the bankrupt shall immediately inform the Director General of Insolvency if there is any change of his home address;

(bb)破产人必须即刻通知破产管理官,如果他更改了他的住家地址;

(c)     the bankrupt shall not leave Malaysia without the previous permission of the Director General of Insolvency or of the court;

(三)在未获得破产管理官或法庭的批准,破产人不得擅自离开马来西亚;

(d)    the bankrupt shall not, except with the previous permission of the Director General of Insolvency or of the court, enter into or carry on any business either alone or in partnership, or become a director of any company or otherwise directly or indirectly take part in the management of any company;

(四)在未获得破产管理官或法庭的批准,破产人不得参与或从事任何生意(无论是私人生或合伙的生意),成为公司董事,或管理公司;

(e)     the bankrupt shall not, except with the previous permission of the Director General of Insolvency or of the court, engage in the management or control of any business carried on by or on behalf of, or be in the employment of, any of the following persons, namely-
在未获得破产管理官或法庭的批准,破产人不得参与或操控下列人士经营任何生意,代表或受雇于他:

(i)     his spouse;

(i)其配偶;

(ii)     a lineal ancestor or a lineal descendant of his or a spouse of such ancestor or descendant; or

(二)其直系长辈或其后裔或其配偶;

(iii)     a sibling of his or a spouse of such sibling.

(三)其兄弟姐妹或其配偶。

(1A)     In granting permission under paragraph (1)(c), (d) or (e), the Director General of Insolvency or the court may impose such conditions as he or it may think fit.

( A)破产管理官可以在给予任何条文38(1)(c),(d)以及(e)批准中设下任何他觉得可行的条件。

(2)     A bankrupt who makes default in performing or observing this section or a condition imposed pursuant to subsection (1A) shall be deemed guilty of a contempt of court, and shall be punished accordingly on the application of the Director General of Insolvency.

( 2)破产人如果拒绝执行,服从或遵守此条文或任何根据以上38(1)(a)条文所设下的条件将会被视为犯下藐视法庭罪,并在破产管理官的呈请下遭受处罚。

Discharge as a Bankrupt

If you would like to find out about getting a Discharge as a Bankrupt please click on the article below to fill up a form.

Social Guarantor Discharge Annul Bankrupt Automatic Malaysia Query

*Chinese is a translation to the best efforts and if there is a conflict between the translation and the English version, please refer to the English version.

中文版本是我们尽了最大努力所做出的翻译版,如翻译版与英文版之间有任何冲突不一致之处,當以英文版为准。

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